KNOW THE DIFFERENCE. Often times new Vocaloid fans tend to refer every character they see in Vocaloid-related content as a Vocaloid. (From 'We hate Hatsune Miku fan-brats' Facebook Page)
rmL's note: Initially, I never really intended to make a 'part two' of 'Vocaloid 101' but since there was more to share about introducing Vocaloid to new fans, it was kinda necessary to make another one. Also, I got inspired by the picture above so here's the outcome.

If you have read my previous write-up, which you can do so here, I've discussed what Vocaloid actually is and how original content made with Vocaloid eventually gets fan-made content based on that. Now, pictured above are four terms: Vocaloid, Fanloid, Utauloid and Utaite. Two of them, namely Vocaloid (obviously) and Utauloid I've already mentioned and discussed while the other two I didn't explicitly mention but I did describe them in the previous article. So, what I'm going to do today is to make a follow-up on that right now. Read more after the break.
Just like most fans of Vocaloid today, I too got confused when I was still new to Vocaloid back in 2011. After hearing about the technology and my fascination after hearing a few songs. I thought that the Crypton Vocaloids: Miku, Kaito, Meiko, Luka, Rin and Len were the 'official' ones and the rest were fan-made. I can't be blamed, they're usually the ones that came out when searching for Vocaloid (at least for me at that time). Well, after being clarified about fanloids, derivatives and especially UTAUloids. I was kinda embarrassed and I now knew that there was a lot more to cover about Vocaloid than just Vocaloid itself. 

Okay, while the picture above already explains pretty what they are, let me put in my own input as well.

I think everything has been covered in the previous 'Vocaloid 101' but I did come across this video which extensively covers further what I've mentioned and much more which is Vocaloid concerts! (we also share the way how we got interested in Vocaloid which is the technology.)
Fanloids (Derivatives)
In the previous Vocaloid 101, I mentioned about characters in Vocaloid and how some are official and while others are fan-made. Oftentimes, when an official character gets popular, fan-mades usually come out based on that character. It sometimes goes the other way around: a fan-made character could adopted to become an official character.

As mentioned in the picture, fanloids are fan-made characters made by the Vocaloid community, usually based on an actual Vocaloid, wherein they do not have an official voicebank which can consider them a Vocaloid (not to be confused with an UTAUloid)

However, I would like to clarify a few points on fanloids: there are actually different kinds of fan-made Vocaloids as well. We have derivatives wherein these are characters that are based from the original character. Examples of these are Hachune Miku and Tako Luka.
Tamago's 'Hachune Miku' and Sangatsu Youka's 'Tako Luka' have eventually become officially recognized derivatives of Miku and Luka respectively and have since been used in Crypton's promotions.
We also have genderbends which are basically the male/female counterpart of an actual Vocaloid whose voice parameters were adjusted to sound their opposite gender. Even Rin and Len have their genderbends which are named Rinto and Lenka respectively.
It was often questioned by fans as to why Rin and Len would even have genderbends since they are 'mirror' images of each other. (original illustration by pixiv user 'an')
And finally, we have fan-made characters whose design elements are borrowed from another Vocaloid or were based on events related to the Vocaloid community. The most well-know examples are and often mistaken to be actual Vocaloids (like I did initially) are Yowane Haku and Akita Neru.
CAFFEIN's Yowane Haku and Smith Hioka's Akita Neru were too became recognized as official derivatives of Miku by Crypton and were also became part of the company's promotions.
I've covered UTAU and UTAUloids briefly in the first 'Vocaloid 101'. As I mentioned there, anyone can make their own UTAUloid, there are many (and I mean many) out there including my own UTAUloid named Wajima Maro and his genderbend Mari which you can check out at the VrmL UTAU Project website. (shameless self promotion there) 

Kasane Teto is among the most popular UTAUloids whose character was initially made as an April Fool's joke for being Crypton's next Vocaloid. Since then, her voice was recorded for UTAU and she has been licensed by TWINDRILL. She was then 'adopted' by Crypton the same way fanloids did.
Teto was illustrated by Sen and voiced by 'Mayo Oyamano'. Her initial success can be linked more to her character image than her voice due to UTAU's limitations at the time but with further developments in the technology, many Vocaloid producers has begun using her and UTAU in general as well.
I've also mentioned in the previous Vocaloid 101 that among the fan-made content made based from the original Vocaloid content are the songs sang by a human singer. 

Aside from the definition mentioned above, the following is an excerpt from the Utaite Wiki which also explains what an utaite does.
Utaite (歌い手 utaite) is a Japanese term for people who cover previously released songs and post them on Nico Nico Douga and YouTube under the utattemita category. The term "utaite" is unique to Nico Nico Douga singers, making it different from "kashu" (歌手 kashu), which means "singer" in general.

Most utaite exclusively cover songs and upload under the utattemita section, but some of them have doujin circlesand release original music/drama CDs during events .... A few utaite also have become partly or wholly professional singers and have released/will release their albums under official labels. 
Simply put, they are 'internet human singers' who post their covers online. Due to the popularity of Vocaloid in Japan, they have also began singing Vocaloid songs. Among the niconico utaite are 96Neko and that. Some Vocaloid producers are also utaite like DECO*27 and halyosy.
Most utaite have a depicted character image of themselves. This might be the reason as to why some new fans also mistaken them for Vocaloid characters. (images taken from the respective Utaite Wiki pages of each utaite.)
Since I have anyways introduced you further into the Nico Nico culture where most of the original and fan-made Vocaloid content is. Better be familiar with some of the terms often used there. My personal advice: I highly encourage to use the English version of niconico now that it's here for your activites especially commenting. It is still a Japanese-dominated site after all and to make online comments in English on the Japanes version of the video player is considered rude to the native Japanese users.

I'll probable discuss more about NND next time. (and I didn't forget UTAU as well in the previous article) 

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